Anonymous film

Anonymous Film ...alles zum Film Anonymus

Dieser Film stellt infrage, ob William Shakespeare tatsächlich der Verfasser von Werken wie William Shakespeares `Romeo und Julia', 'Hamlet' oder 'Ein Sommernachtstraum' ist. Was wäre, wenn in Wirklichkeit Edward de Vere, der Earl von Oxford, der. Anonymus ist ein Kinofilm von Roland Emmerich aus dem Jahr Der Film hatte seine Deutscher Titel, Anonymus. Originaltitel, Anonymous. Produktionsland, Deutschland, Großbritannien. Originalsprache, Englisch. Erscheinungsjahr, "Anonymous" - ein Film sucht Shakespeare. Der deutsche Filmregisseur Roland Emmerich hat einen furiosen Historienthriller über ein. Anonymus ein Film von Roland Emmerich mit Rhys Ifans, Vanessa Redgrave. Inhaltsangabe: Anonymous hat meine Meinung noch einmal extrem verstärkt. Intrigen, die Edward de Vere auch in seinen überaus populären Dramen thematisiert um das Volk für "seinen" Thronfolger zu begeistern Bildergalerie zum Film. '.

anonymous film

Daher wird Shakespeare in diesem Film entgegen aller Geschichten, nicht als Anonymous ambitiously conveys the theory that Shakespeare did not write a. Intrigen, die Edward de Vere auch in seinen überaus populären Dramen thematisiert um das Volk für "seinen" Thronfolger zu begeistern Bildergalerie zum Film. '. Eine Rezension zum Ghostwriter-Film Anonymous von Roland Emmerich von lars-broberg.se anonymous film

Anonymous Film Video

Anonymous Elizabeth agrees to spare Henry, but insists that Edward remain anonymous as the true author of "Shakespeare's" works. He [Shapiro] Here Trystan Colony trailer deutsch Edit Did You Know? Queen Elizabeth I. Emmerich is on record as believing that "everybody in the Stratfordian side is so pissed check this out because we've called them on their lies. anonymous film Anna J. Matthew Warchus. Vieles haben wir letztlich aus dramatischen Gründen anders umgesetzt. Https://lars-broberg.se/serien-stream-legal/rote-rosen-staffel-16.php Musketier für alle Fälle. Montagnacht here Uhr auf SRF 1. Interviews, Making-Of und Ausschnitte. Click at this page Earl von Oxford jetzt gespielt von Rhys Ifans ist zwischenzeitlich mit Visit web page Tochter Anne verheiratet und auf der Suche nach einer Marionette, unter deren Name er seine Stücke am eifersüchtig wachenden Schwiegervater vorbei veröffentlichen kann.

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Ich möchte Ihnen versichern, dass die meisten populären Kinofilme ein Akt der Fiktion sind. Oscars ohne Filme? Anonymus - Pressekonferenz - Introduction. Anonymus - Pressekonferenz - Rafe Spall. Rambo: Last Blood. Betty Anne Waters. Tipps Warum, das click here Emmerich im Gespräch. Filme Mein Herz tanzt. Mit furiosem Schwung verlässt der Film alsbald die Click the following article, um in die historische Filmrealität zu rutschen und eröffnet mit diesem raffinierten Trick ein Vexierspiel zwischen Fakt und Fälschung, Leben und Literatur, Theater continue reading Kino. Deutschkurse Podcasts. Anonymous Mehr Informationen dazu finden Sie in unserer Datenschutzerklärung.

Shakespeare isn't available to rebut, and most moviegoers are not concerned with historical accuracy so long as the story is compelling and filled with drama, which Anonymous delivers.

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Set against the backdrop of the succession of Queen Elizabeth I and the Essex rebellion against her.

Director: Roland Emmerich. Writer: John Orloff. Available on Amazon. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic.

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Nominated for 1 Oscar. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Rhys Ifans Earl of Oxford Vanessa Redgrave Queen Elizabeth I Sebastian Armesto Ben Jonson Rafe Spall William Shakespeare David Thewlis William Cecil Edward Hogg Robert Cecil Xavier Samuel Earl of Southampton Sam Reid Young Earl of Oxford Joely Richardson Francesco Trystan Gravelle Christopher Marlowe Robert Emms Thomas Dekker Tony Way Thomas Nashe Julian Bleach Learn more More Like This.

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Dark Horse TV Movie Drama Fantasy. Stargate Action Adventure Sci-Fi. The Patriot Action Drama History. Not yet released.

An archaeologist and a group of marines discover a portal to another world. Franzmann Directors: Roland Emmerich, Oswald von Richthofen.

Singularity I. Edit Did You Know? Trivia When a reporter on National Public Radio pointed out to screenwriter John Orloff that this movie is full of historical inaccuracies for instance, the playwright Christopher Marlowe, who appears as a character in this movie, actually was dead by the time these events supposedly "took place" , he responded that he wrote these inaccuracies into the screenplay deliberately as an homage to the way that Shakespeare himself took dramatic liberties in his history plays.

Goofs The theater that burned in the movie was Ben Jonson's, not the Globe. Quotes Prologue : Though our story is at an end, our poet's is not; for his monument is everliving.

Jonson confronts Shakespeare and accuses him of murder. Edward and Essex, seeking to reduce Cecil's influence and to secure Essex's claim to succession, decide to force their way into the palace, against Cecil's wishes.

Simultaneously, he would gain access to Elizabeth by sending her Venus and Adonis. The plan is set to fail when a bitter Ben, angered by what he perceives as his own inadequacy as a writer and Shakespeare's unearned success, betrays the plan to Robert Cecil by informing him that Richard III will be played as a hunchback, a reference to Robert Cecil's own deformity.

The mob is stopped at the Bridge, and Robert Devereux and Henry surrender in the palace courtyard when the soldiers fire on them from the parapet.

Robert Cecil tells Edward that Elizabeth has had other illegitimate children, the first of whom was born during the reign of Bloody Mary when she was only sixteen and a virtual prisoner of her sister.

William Cecil, already close to the future queen, hid the child and passed him off as the son of the Earl of Oxford, revealing Edward's parentage to him: he is the first of Elizabeth's bastard children.

Horrified by the failure of his plan for the succession, the expected execution of his son and the knowledge that he committed incest with his own mother, Edward nevertheless visits the Queen in a private audience to beg her to spare Henry.

Elizabeth agrees to spare Henry, but insists that Edward remain anonymous as the true author of "Shakespeare's" works. Henry is released while Essex is executed for his treason.

On his deathbed, Edward entrusts a parcel full of his writings to Ben to keep them out of the hands of the royal family. Ben at first refuses the task and confesses to Edward that he betrayed him to the Cecils.

In an unexpected heart-to-heart between the two playwrights, Edward admits that, whenever he had heard the applause for his plays, he had always known they were celebrating another man but that he had always wanted to gain Ben's approval, as he had been the only one to know that he had been the author of the plays.

Ben admits that he considers Edward to be the 'Soul of the Age' and promises to protect the plays and publish them when the time is right.

After Edward's death, Ben's interrogation ends when he tells Robert Cecil hears that the Rose has been destroyed by fire and he had hidden the plays inside.

As he is released, Robert instructs Ben to better Edward and wipe his memory from the world. Ben tells him that he would if he could but that it was impossible to do.

Miraculously, Ben finds the manuscripts where he hid them in the ruins of the Rose. At a performance of a "Shakespeare" play performed at court, James I remarks to a visibly unhappy Robert that he is an avid theatre goer.

Returning to the present day theatre, the narrator concludes the story by revealing the characters' fates: Robert Cecil remained the King's most trusted advisor, but never succeeded in banishing Edward's plays.

Shakespeare did not remain in London, but returned to his hometown of Stratford upon Avon where he spent his last remaining years as a businessman.

Ben would achieve his dream and became the first Poet Laureate , and would later write the introduction to the collected works purported to be authored by William Shakespeare.

Although the story ends with the fate of its characters, the narrator proclaims that the poet who wrote these works, whether it be Shakespeare or another, had not seen the end of their story, and that "his monument is ever-living, made not of stone but of verse, and it shall be remembered Screenwriter John Orloff Band of Brothers , A Mighty Heart became interested in the authorship debate after watching a Frontline programme about the controversy.

However, financing proved to be "a risky undertaking," according to director Roland Emmerich. In October , Emmerich stated, "It's very hard to get a movie like this made, and I want to make it in a certain way.

I've actually had this project for eight years. Emmerich noted he knew little of either Elizabethan history or the authorship question until he came across John Orloff 's script, after which he "steeped" himself in the various theories.

In a November interview, Emmerich said the heart of the movie is in the original title The Soul of the Age , and it revolved around three main characters: Ben Jonson , William Shakespeare, and the Earl of Oxford.

In a subsequent announcement in , Emmerich detailed the finalised plot line: [16]. It's the Tudors on one side and the Cecils on the other, and in between [the two] is the Queen.

Through that story we tell how the plays written by the Earl of Oxford ended up labelled 'William Shakespeare'. Anonymous was the first motion picture to be shot with the new Arri Alexa camera, with most of the period backgrounds created and enhanced via new CGI technology.

These include a full-scale replica of London's imposing The Rose theatre. The site's critical consensus reads, "Roland Emmerich delivers his trademark visual and emotional bombast, but the more Anonymous stops and tries to convince the audience of its half-baked theory, the less convincing it becomes.

Rex Reed regards Anonymous as "one of the most exciting on-screen literary rows since Norman Mailer was beaten with a hammer ," and well worth the stamina required to sit out what is an otherwise exhausting film.

Not only Shakespeare's identity, but also that of Queen Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen" is challenged by Orloff's script, which has her as "a randy piece of work who had many lovers and bore several children.

It boasts a cast of pure gold, and its "recreation of the Old Globe, the fame that brought ruin and dishonour to both Oxford and the money-grubbing Shakespeare, and the sacrifice of Oxford's own property and family fortune to write plays he believed in against a background of danger and violence make for a bloody good yarn, masterfully told, lushly appointed, slavishly researched and brilliantly acted.

Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune writes that the film is ridiculous but not dull. Displaying a "rollicking belief in its own nutty bombast" as "history is simultaneously being made up and rewritten," its best scenes are those of the candle-lit interiors caught by the Alexa digital camera on a lovely copper-and-honey-toned palette.

Roger Ebert finds Orloff's screenplay "ingenious," Emmerich's direction "precise", and the cast "memorable". Though "profoundly mistaken", Anonymous is "a marvellous historical film," giving viewers "a splendid experience: the dialogue, the acting, the depiction of London, the lust, jealousy and intrigue.

Kirk Honeycutt ranked it as Emmerich's best film, with a superb cast of British actors, and a stunning digitally-enhanced recreation of London in Elizabethan times.

The film is "glorious fun as it grows increasingly implausible", for the plot "is all historical rubbish". Emmerich's problem, he argues, is that he was so intent on proving his credentials as a serious director that the film ended up "drowned in exposition".

Orloff's screenplay heavily confuses plotlines; the politics are retrofitted to suit the theory. The lead roles are "unengaging" but special mention is given to Edward Hogg's performance as Robert Cecil, and Vanessa Redgrave's role as Elizabeth.

Robert Koehler of Variety reads the film as an "illustrated argument" of an "aggressively promoted and more frequently debunked" theory, and finds it less interesting than the actors who play a role in, or endorse, it.

Narrative cogency is strained by the constant switches in time signature, and the imbroglio of Shakespeare and Jonson squabbling publicly over claims to authorship is both tiresome and "veers close to comedy"; indeed it is superfluous given Ifans's commanding and convincing acting as the "real" Shakespeare.

The supporting cast of actors is praised for fine performances, except for Spall's Shakespeare, who is "often so ridiculous that the 'Stratfordians' will feel doubly insulted.

Foerster's elegant widescreen lensing. The score, however, fails their standards. Kristopher Tapley champions the film, finding that Orloff has spun "a fascinating yarn".

Ifans gives a stunning performance, and Spall's Shakespeare provides delightful comic relief. The film is "gorgeous" and Tapley agrees with a colleague's judgement that "people will likely look back to Anonymous as the tipping point of what you can really do with digital in a next-level kind of way".

David Denby of The New Yorker writes of Emmerich's "preposterous fantasia", where confusion reigns as to which of the virgin queen's illegitimate children is Essex and which Southampton, and where it is not clear what the connection is between the plot to hide the authorship of the plays and the struggle to find a successor to the officially childless Elizabeth.

He concludes that, "The Oxford theory is ridiculous, yet the filmmakers go all the way with it, producing endless scenes of indecipherable court intrigue in dark, smoky rooms, and a fashion show of ruffs , farthingales , and halberds.

The more far-fetched the idea, it seems, the more strenuous the effort to pass it off as authentic. James Lileks of Star Tribune , noting favourable responses, including one where a critic wondered if Emmerich had anything to do with it, says the devious message must be that a shlock-merchant like Emmerich wasn't involved, but, like the film plot itself, must conceal the hand of some more experienced filmmaker , whose identity will be much debated for centuries to come.

The "blubbering" about the brilliance of Shakespeare's works is repetitive, and upstages the initial whiff of scandal, giving the impression that the film is "much ado about nothing".

Scott of The New York Times wrote that Anonymous is "a vulgar prank on the English literary tradition, a travesty of British history and a brutal insult to the human imagination".

Yet, a fine cast manages to "burnish even meretricious nonsense with craft and conviction", and one is "tempted to suspend disbelief, even if Mr.

Emmerich finally makes it impossible. Emmerich's CGI effects are well-done, but it is amazing just to watch an "actor on a bare wooden stage, using nothing but a sequence of words that make your scalp prickle.

Andrea Chase in Killer Movie Reviews rates Anonymous as "superb", dwelling on Orloff's rich script, which has "done an excellent job of fitting the known facts to the thesis on offer", on Emmerich's dramatic flair and the wonderful supporting cast.

It is somewhat spoiled by Ifans's leaden presence, which betrays nothing of "the ribald temper to be found in the plays. Louise Keller for Urban Cinefile admires the "thought-provoking scenario" of Orloff's "marvellous conspiracy story", though its "twists and turns" are headspinning: "anyone who can follow the first 30 minutes of the plot, must have been polishing the grey matter with advanced Sudoku : it's an unholy mess of complicated situations and jumps in time frame.

According to Brendan Bettinger, " Anonymous came out of Toronto with surprisingly positive early reviews for a Roland Emmerich picture.

We're committed to expanding it until it plays wide. Gessler and Sebastian T. In a trailer for the movie, Emmerich lists ten reasons why in his view Shakespeare did not write the plays attributed to him.

According to Sony Pictures, "The objective for our Anonymous program, as stated in the classroom literature, is 'to encourage critical thinking by challenging students to examine the theories about the authorship of Shakespeare's works and to formulate their own opinions.

Columbia University 's James Shapiro , in an interview with The Wall Street Journal [48] noted that according to an article in the same journal in , three U.

Scriptwriter John Orloff replied that Shapiro oversimplified the facts, since Justice Stevens later affirmed that he had had "lingering concerns" and "gnawing doubts" that Shakespeare might have been someone else, and that if the author was not Shakespeare, then there was a high probability he was Edward de Vere.

Emmerich complains of what he sees as the "arrogance of the literary establishment" to say: "We know it, we teach it, so shut the fuck up.

He [Shapiro] Just outright lying. It's bizarre. But they also have a lot to lose. He wrote a bestseller about William Shakespeare called "" which is one year in the life of this mine [ sic ] which is incredible to read when you all of a sudden realize where did he get all of this stuff from?

Emmerich is on record as believing that "everybody in the Stratfordian side is so pissed off because we've called them on their lies.

Screenwriter John Orloff argued that the film would reshape the way we read Shakespeare. Bert Fields , a lawyer who wrote a book about the authorship issue, thinks scholars may be missing the larger benefit that Anonymous provides — widespread appreciation of the Bard's work.

It isn't threatening anybody," Fields commented. But if anything, it makes the work more important. It focuses attention on the most important body of work in the English language.

In an interview with The Atlantic , scriptwriter John Orloff was asked, "In crafting your characters and the narrative, how were you able to find the right balance between historical fact, fiction, and speculation?

The Shakespeare histories are not really histories. They're dramas. He compresses time. He adds characters that have been dead by the time the events are occurring.

He'll invent characters out of whole cloth, like Falstaff in the history plays. First and foremost it's a drama, and just like Shakespeare we're creating drama.

Emmerich, when given examples of details that do not correspond to the facts, was reported as being more concerned with the mood of the film.

Emmerich also notes that Shakespeare was not concerned with historical accuracy, and argues that examining the inner truth of history was his objective.

Crace, in discussing the notion of Emmerich as a 'literary detective', comments that the director "has never knowingly let the facts get in the way of a good story.

The result is that "the very absence of surviving evidence proves the case. Tiffany Stern, professor of early modern drama at Oxford University , says that the film is fictional, and should be enjoyed as such.

Gordon McMullan, professor of English at King's College , says Shakespeare wrote the plays, and the idea he didn't is related to a conspiracy theory that coincides with the emergence of the detective genre.

For Orloff, criticisms by scholars that call the film fictional rather than factual are kneejerk reactions to the "academic subversion of normality".

In a pre-release interview, scriptwriter Orloff said that, with the exception of whether Shakespeare wrote the plays or not, "The movie is unbelievably historically accurate Obviously, in my movie, he didn't, so a lot of people will say that's not historically accurate and they are totally welcome to that opinion.

But, the world within the movie, that that story takes place in, is incredibly accurate, like the Essex Rebellion and the ages of the characters.

Orloff also described the attention given to creating a "real London", noting that the effects crew "took 30, pictures in England, of every Tudor building they could find, and then they scanned them all into the computer and built real London in According to Holger Syme, [62] Stephen Marche [63] and James Shapiro, [64] the film does contain a number of historical inaccuracies.

These include standard theatrical techniques such as time compression and the conflating of supporting characters and locations, as well as larger deviations from recorded history.

Essex was King James of Scotland's most avid supporter in England during the closing years of Elizabeth's reign.

In fact William Cecil feared James, believing he bore a grudge against him for his role in the death of James' mother, Mary Queen of Scots.

The film redates some plays and poems to fit the story of the Essex Rebellion. This event never occurred. It was published in Later, Macbeth is shown being staged after Julius Caesar and before Richard III and Hamlet , though those plays are estimated by scholars to have been performed around and — respectively [65] whereas Macbeth , often called "the Scottish play" because of its Scottish setting and plot, is generally believed to have been written to commemorate the ascent of the Scottish King James to the English throne.

That did not happen until The history of Elizabethan drama is altered to portray de Vere as an innovator.

Jonson is amazed to learn that Romeo and Juliet , written in , is apparently entirely in blank verse. The play actually appeared in print in , [62] and Gorboduc precedes it as the first to employ the measure throughout the play by more than 35 years.

By the form was standard in theatre; however, Jonson's shock may have been in reference to the fact that De Vere in particular would be capable of writing a play in iambic pentameter, and not to the idea that one could be written.

It was written several decades later; however, the film does imply that De Vere wrote many plays and hid them from the public for decades before having Shakespeare perform them, so this does not necessarily contradict the timeline of the play being first performed on the London stage in public between and , as is the traditional belief.

Early in the film, Jonson is arrested for writing a "seditious" play. This is based on the fact that in he was arrested for sedition as co-writer of the play The Isle of Dogs with Thomas Nashe , possibly his earliest work.

The "seditious" play in the film is referred to by the name "Every Man". The fragments of dialogue we hear are from the latter.

Neither were deemed seditious. The death of Christopher Marlowe plays a small but significant role in the storyline.

Marlowe is portrayed alive in , while in fact he died in These events actually happened six years apart. He is known to have died by that year, though the exact date is uncertain.

Other departures for dramatic effect include the portrayal of Elizabeth's funeral taking place on the frozen Thames.

The actual ceremony took place on land. The Thames did not freeze over that year. The film conflates his two wives into the character of Anne.

It appears to be The Rose , which was never recorded as having caught fire, whereas the real Globe Theatre burned down in when explosions during a performance accidentally set it alight.

De Vere is shown pruning a rose bush, which he describes as a rare Tudor rose. The Tudor rose was not a real biological plant, but a graphic device used by the Tudor family; however, De Vere may have been speaking metaphorically.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theatrical release poster. Harald Kloser Thomas Wander. Redgrave commented that "It's very interesting, the fractures, in this extraordinary creature I only hope that I've been able to respond to Roland in this script sufficiently to be able to just give a little glimpse of this fracturing, this black hole, with shafts of brief sunlight.

De Vere came to live in his household as a ward of the Queen at age 12 and became Burghley's son-in-law at age Burghley is portrayed in the film as the inspiration for the character Polonius.

Main article: Succession to Elizabeth I of England. Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database.

Daher wird Shakespeare in diesem Film entgegen aller Geschichten, nicht als Anonymous ambitiously conveys the theory that Shakespeare did not write a. Der sonst auf krachende Katastrophenfilme abonnierte Roland Emmerich taucht in seinem neuesten Werk in die Historie des Tudor-England. Film & Serien - Film-Tipp des Tages: «Anonymous». Was, wenn der gefeierte William Shakespeare gar nicht der Autor wäre, für den die Welt ihn hält? Sondern​. Eine Rezension zum Ghostwriter-Film Anonymous von Roland Emmerich von lars-broberg.se

Anonymous Film Zeitreise: 3. Staffel der Netflix-Serie "Dark"

Aber das wäre zu kompliziert gewesen für den Film. Alle Festivalberichte. Mit dieser Figur leidet der empfindsame Zuschauer. Um sie veröffentlichen see more können, braucht er read article einen verschwiegenen Strohmann, der bereit ist, gegen Bezahlung die Stücke unter eigenem Namen aufführen zu lassen. Adam August. Meistgelesene Artikel. Sie ist nie in die Luft gesprengt worden! Peter R.

When William Shakespeare takes credit Rafe Spall , that's the least of concerns as the words of Edward affect the political climate.

Rhys Ifans is an unrecognizable powerhouse, and though the rest of the cast fairs well, he shines. As does director Roland Emmerich, who uses every trick at his disposal to make a highly sophisticated drama littered with elaborate costumes and set decoration to be admired.

The theatre experience is very well represented in Anonymous, with the narrator barely making the curtain. Believe it or not but this does actually happen and there are actors who specialize in.

The workings of the theatre coincide with the events described and eventually merge. In the time of Edward, the Globe is shown with spectacular accuracy and the familiar faces of the troupe appear across plays.

The future of England is put at stake as the insight into Edward's inspiration is penned on a relationship with Queen Elizabeth Vanessa Redgrave and in younger form Joely Richardson.

These secrets showcase the power of words to win over love and country. Is it cheating to inject stolen verse into a screenplay? To some extent yes.

We're talking about a movie that lifts words, then says they came from a thief. A bit of a paradox if anything.

Similarly, it would be silly for J. Abrams to direct a movie that's filled with scenes from every Steven Spielberg film, yet that happened with Super 8.

If Anonymous has a fault, it would be in jerking around the audience. The movie starts with an inventive use of a framing device, and quite appropriately in a theatre.

We go back and Ben Johnson is jailed, only for us to go back 5 years to see him getting jailed. Then we go back another 40 and when we next see Johnson he's being set free.

Thankfully Anonymous is long enough to allow an audience to gain bearings. Anonymous is Emmerich's masterpiece, a radical far from his usual environmental apocalypse works.

There could be a stigma surrounding the subject, which will be viewed as blasphemy by many. I'd like to reassure you that most popular cinema is an act of fiction.

Shakespeare isn't available to rebut, and most moviegoers are not concerned with historical accuracy so long as the story is compelling and filled with drama, which Anonymous delivers.

Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites.

Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews.

Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Set against the backdrop of the succession of Queen Elizabeth I and the Essex rebellion against her.

Director: Roland Emmerich. Writer: John Orloff. Available on Amazon. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic.

June's Most Anticipated Streaming Titles. Share this Rating Title: Anonymous 6. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

Nominated for 1 Oscar. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Rhys Ifans Earl of Oxford Vanessa Redgrave Queen Elizabeth I Sebastian Armesto Ben Jonson Rafe Spall William Shakespeare David Thewlis William Cecil Edward Hogg Robert Cecil Xavier Samuel Earl of Southampton Sam Reid Young Earl of Oxford Joely Richardson Francesco Trystan Gravelle Christopher Marlowe Robert Emms Thomas Dekker Tony Way Thomas Nashe Julian Bleach Learn more More Like This.

In modern-day New York, Derek Jacobi arrives at a theater where he delivers a monologue questioning the lack of manuscript writings of William Shakespeare, despite the undeniable fact that he is the most performed playwright of all time.

Ben Jonson is making ready to enter the stage. The narrator offers to take the viewers into a different story behind the origin of Shakespeare's plays: "one of quills and swords, of power and betrayal, of a stage conquered and a throne lost.

Jumping to Elizabethan London, Ben Jonson is running through the streets carrying a parcel and being pursued by soldiers.

He enters the theatre called The Rose and hides the manuscripts he carries as the soldiers set fire to the theatre. Ben is detained at the Tower of London to face the questioning of puritanical Robert Cecil.

In a flashback of five years, an adult Edward lives, disgraced and banished from court, in the last years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.

The queen is old and in failing health but, as she has remained unmarried, lacks an heir. The affairs of the kingdom are managed by the elderly Lord William Cecil , the Queen's primary adviser, and his son Robert.

A growing group of malcontent nobles gather at court, led by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , who is widely believed to be Elizabeth's bastard son.

In secret, the Cecils have been planning to solve the succession crisis by offering the crown to Elizabeth's cousin, King James VI of Scotland ; the idea of a foreign king inheriting the crown of the Tudors angers enough nobles that they begin to muster support for Essex to claim the throne when Elizabeth dies.

Edward's young friend, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton , is pledged to support Essex but Edward warns him against any rash action and that any move they make has to be managed carefully to avoid civil war.

When Edward and Henry visit a public theatre to see a play written by Ben Jonson, Edward witnesses how a play can sway people, and thinks that it can be used to thwart the influence of the Cecils, who as devout Puritans reject theater as the 'worship of false idols', with Queen Elizabeth concerning her successor.

After the Cecils declare Ben's play illegal and arrest him, Edward arranges for his release and instructs him to stage a play he wrote and act as the author.

The play, Henry V , galvanizes the people and even Ben, who had contemptuously dismissed Edward's skill as a writer as the passing fancy of a bored nobleman, is impressed.

At curtain call, however, William Shakespeare, a "drunken oaf", steps forward to be recognized as the author of the play.

Elizabeth accepts a gift that evokes a memory from forty years before, when the boy, Edward, performed in his own play, A Midsummer Night's Dream , as Puck.

After the elder Earl of Oxford's death, the teenage Edward is entrusted as a ward to William Cecil and must write his plays in secret to avoid his guardian's ire.

During this time, Edward kills a spying servant who had discovered his plays. William Cecil covers up the incident but forces Edward into a marriage with his daughter, Anne.

However, Edward is infatuated with the queen and, after a brief time living on the continent, he enters into an affair with Elizabeth.

When the queen discovers she is pregnant with Edward's child, she tells William of her intention to marry him but he dissuades her and arranges for the child to be fostered into a noble family, as they had done in the past with Elizabeth's other bastards.

Elizabeth ends her affair with Edward and does not tell him the reason. Angered, he has an affair with a lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth and learns from her that he had fathered a child with the Queen.

When Elizabeth learns of the affair, Edward is banished from court but not before learning the name of his illegitimate child: Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton.

Back in the adult Edward's time, despite Shakespeare's claim to his plays, Edward continues to provide Ben with plays which quickly become the thrill of London.

Despite their unhappiness at the plays' popularity, the Cecils do not outlaw them because they fear the mob which might occur if they do. Ben becomes increasingly frustrated with his role as Edward's messenger and his own inability to match the brilliance of his plays.

Later on, Shakespeare discovers that Edward is the real author and extorts him for money. He orders the construction of the Globe Theatre , where he bans Jonson's works from being performed, and claims Edward's plays as his own.

Christopher Marlowe discovers Shakespeare's deal, and is later found with his throat slit. Jonson confronts Shakespeare and accuses him of murder.

Edward and Essex, seeking to reduce Cecil's influence and to secure Essex's claim to succession, decide to force their way into the palace, against Cecil's wishes.

Simultaneously, he would gain access to Elizabeth by sending her Venus and Adonis. The plan is set to fail when a bitter Ben, angered by what he perceives as his own inadequacy as a writer and Shakespeare's unearned success, betrays the plan to Robert Cecil by informing him that Richard III will be played as a hunchback, a reference to Robert Cecil's own deformity.

The mob is stopped at the Bridge, and Robert Devereux and Henry surrender in the palace courtyard when the soldiers fire on them from the parapet.

Robert Cecil tells Edward that Elizabeth has had other illegitimate children, the first of whom was born during the reign of Bloody Mary when she was only sixteen and a virtual prisoner of her sister.

William Cecil, already close to the future queen, hid the child and passed him off as the son of the Earl of Oxford, revealing Edward's parentage to him: he is the first of Elizabeth's bastard children.

Horrified by the failure of his plan for the succession, the expected execution of his son and the knowledge that he committed incest with his own mother, Edward nevertheless visits the Queen in a private audience to beg her to spare Henry.

Elizabeth agrees to spare Henry, but insists that Edward remain anonymous as the true author of "Shakespeare's" works.

Henry is released while Essex is executed for his treason. On his deathbed, Edward entrusts a parcel full of his writings to Ben to keep them out of the hands of the royal family.

Ben at first refuses the task and confesses to Edward that he betrayed him to the Cecils. In an unexpected heart-to-heart between the two playwrights, Edward admits that, whenever he had heard the applause for his plays, he had always known they were celebrating another man but that he had always wanted to gain Ben's approval, as he had been the only one to know that he had been the author of the plays.

Ben admits that he considers Edward to be the 'Soul of the Age' and promises to protect the plays and publish them when the time is right.

After Edward's death, Ben's interrogation ends when he tells Robert Cecil hears that the Rose has been destroyed by fire and he had hidden the plays inside.

As he is released, Robert instructs Ben to better Edward and wipe his memory from the world. Ben tells him that he would if he could but that it was impossible to do.

Miraculously, Ben finds the manuscripts where he hid them in the ruins of the Rose. At a performance of a "Shakespeare" play performed at court, James I remarks to a visibly unhappy Robert that he is an avid theatre goer.

Returning to the present day theatre, the narrator concludes the story by revealing the characters' fates: Robert Cecil remained the King's most trusted advisor, but never succeeded in banishing Edward's plays.

Shakespeare did not remain in London, but returned to his hometown of Stratford upon Avon where he spent his last remaining years as a businessman.

Ben would achieve his dream and became the first Poet Laureate , and would later write the introduction to the collected works purported to be authored by William Shakespeare.

Although the story ends with the fate of its characters, the narrator proclaims that the poet who wrote these works, whether it be Shakespeare or another, had not seen the end of their story, and that "his monument is ever-living, made not of stone but of verse, and it shall be remembered Screenwriter John Orloff Band of Brothers , A Mighty Heart became interested in the authorship debate after watching a Frontline programme about the controversy.

However, financing proved to be "a risky undertaking," according to director Roland Emmerich. In October , Emmerich stated, "It's very hard to get a movie like this made, and I want to make it in a certain way.

I've actually had this project for eight years. Emmerich noted he knew little of either Elizabethan history or the authorship question until he came across John Orloff 's script, after which he "steeped" himself in the various theories.

In a November interview, Emmerich said the heart of the movie is in the original title The Soul of the Age , and it revolved around three main characters: Ben Jonson , William Shakespeare, and the Earl of Oxford.

In a subsequent announcement in , Emmerich detailed the finalised plot line: [16]. It's the Tudors on one side and the Cecils on the other, and in between [the two] is the Queen.

Through that story we tell how the plays written by the Earl of Oxford ended up labelled 'William Shakespeare'.

Anonymous was the first motion picture to be shot with the new Arri Alexa camera, with most of the period backgrounds created and enhanced via new CGI technology.

These include a full-scale replica of London's imposing The Rose theatre. The site's critical consensus reads, "Roland Emmerich delivers his trademark visual and emotional bombast, but the more Anonymous stops and tries to convince the audience of its half-baked theory, the less convincing it becomes.

Rex Reed regards Anonymous as "one of the most exciting on-screen literary rows since Norman Mailer was beaten with a hammer ," and well worth the stamina required to sit out what is an otherwise exhausting film.

Not only Shakespeare's identity, but also that of Queen Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen" is challenged by Orloff's script, which has her as "a randy piece of work who had many lovers and bore several children.

It boasts a cast of pure gold, and its "recreation of the Old Globe, the fame that brought ruin and dishonour to both Oxford and the money-grubbing Shakespeare, and the sacrifice of Oxford's own property and family fortune to write plays he believed in against a background of danger and violence make for a bloody good yarn, masterfully told, lushly appointed, slavishly researched and brilliantly acted.

Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune writes that the film is ridiculous but not dull. Displaying a "rollicking belief in its own nutty bombast" as "history is simultaneously being made up and rewritten," its best scenes are those of the candle-lit interiors caught by the Alexa digital camera on a lovely copper-and-honey-toned palette.

Roger Ebert finds Orloff's screenplay "ingenious," Emmerich's direction "precise", and the cast "memorable".

Though "profoundly mistaken", Anonymous is "a marvellous historical film," giving viewers "a splendid experience: the dialogue, the acting, the depiction of London, the lust, jealousy and intrigue.

Kirk Honeycutt ranked it as Emmerich's best film, with a superb cast of British actors, and a stunning digitally-enhanced recreation of London in Elizabethan times.

The film is "glorious fun as it grows increasingly implausible", for the plot "is all historical rubbish".

Emmerich's problem, he argues, is that he was so intent on proving his credentials as a serious director that the film ended up "drowned in exposition".

Orloff's screenplay heavily confuses plotlines; the politics are retrofitted to suit the theory. The lead roles are "unengaging" but special mention is given to Edward Hogg's performance as Robert Cecil, and Vanessa Redgrave's role as Elizabeth.

Robert Koehler of Variety reads the film as an "illustrated argument" of an "aggressively promoted and more frequently debunked" theory, and finds it less interesting than the actors who play a role in, or endorse, it.

Narrative cogency is strained by the constant switches in time signature, and the imbroglio of Shakespeare and Jonson squabbling publicly over claims to authorship is both tiresome and "veers close to comedy"; indeed it is superfluous given Ifans's commanding and convincing acting as the "real" Shakespeare.

The supporting cast of actors is praised for fine performances, except for Spall's Shakespeare, who is "often so ridiculous that the 'Stratfordians' will feel doubly insulted.

Foerster's elegant widescreen lensing. The score, however, fails their standards. Kristopher Tapley champions the film, finding that Orloff has spun "a fascinating yarn".

Ifans gives a stunning performance, and Spall's Shakespeare provides delightful comic relief. The film is "gorgeous" and Tapley agrees with a colleague's judgement that "people will likely look back to Anonymous as the tipping point of what you can really do with digital in a next-level kind of way".

David Denby of The New Yorker writes of Emmerich's "preposterous fantasia", where confusion reigns as to which of the virgin queen's illegitimate children is Essex and which Southampton, and where it is not clear what the connection is between the plot to hide the authorship of the plays and the struggle to find a successor to the officially childless Elizabeth.

He concludes that, "The Oxford theory is ridiculous, yet the filmmakers go all the way with it, producing endless scenes of indecipherable court intrigue in dark, smoky rooms, and a fashion show of ruffs , farthingales , and halberds.

The more far-fetched the idea, it seems, the more strenuous the effort to pass it off as authentic. James Lileks of Star Tribune , noting favourable responses, including one where a critic wondered if Emmerich had anything to do with it, says the devious message must be that a shlock-merchant like Emmerich wasn't involved, but, like the film plot itself, must conceal the hand of some more experienced filmmaker , whose identity will be much debated for centuries to come.

The "blubbering" about the brilliance of Shakespeare's works is repetitive, and upstages the initial whiff of scandal, giving the impression that the film is "much ado about nothing".

Scott of The New York Times wrote that Anonymous is "a vulgar prank on the English literary tradition, a travesty of British history and a brutal insult to the human imagination".

Yet, a fine cast manages to "burnish even meretricious nonsense with craft and conviction", and one is "tempted to suspend disbelief, even if Mr.

Emmerich finally makes it impossible. Emmerich's CGI effects are well-done, but it is amazing just to watch an "actor on a bare wooden stage, using nothing but a sequence of words that make your scalp prickle.

Andrea Chase in Killer Movie Reviews rates Anonymous as "superb", dwelling on Orloff's rich script, which has "done an excellent job of fitting the known facts to the thesis on offer", on Emmerich's dramatic flair and the wonderful supporting cast.

It is somewhat spoiled by Ifans's leaden presence, which betrays nothing of "the ribald temper to be found in the plays. Louise Keller for Urban Cinefile admires the "thought-provoking scenario" of Orloff's "marvellous conspiracy story", though its "twists and turns" are headspinning: "anyone who can follow the first 30 minutes of the plot, must have been polishing the grey matter with advanced Sudoku : it's an unholy mess of complicated situations and jumps in time frame.

According to Brendan Bettinger, " Anonymous came out of Toronto with surprisingly positive early reviews for a Roland Emmerich picture.

We're committed to expanding it until it plays wide. Gessler and Sebastian T. In a trailer for the movie, Emmerich lists ten reasons why in his view Shakespeare did not write the plays attributed to him.

According to Sony Pictures, "The objective for our Anonymous program, as stated in the classroom literature, is 'to encourage critical thinking by challenging students to examine the theories about the authorship of Shakespeare's works and to formulate their own opinions.

Columbia University 's James Shapiro , in an interview with The Wall Street Journal [48] noted that according to an article in the same journal in , three U.

Scriptwriter John Orloff replied that Shapiro oversimplified the facts, since Justice Stevens later affirmed that he had had "lingering concerns" and "gnawing doubts" that Shakespeare might have been someone else, and that if the author was not Shakespeare, then there was a high probability he was Edward de Vere.

Emmerich complains of what he sees as the "arrogance of the literary establishment" to say: "We know it, we teach it, so shut the fuck up.

He [Shapiro] Just outright lying. It's bizarre. But they also have a lot to lose. He wrote a bestseller about William Shakespeare called "" which is one year in the life of this mine [ sic ] which is incredible to read when you all of a sudden realize where did he get all of this stuff from?

Emmerich is on record as believing that "everybody in the Stratfordian side is so pissed off because we've called them on their lies.

Screenwriter John Orloff argued that the film would reshape the way we read Shakespeare. Bert Fields , a lawyer who wrote a book about the authorship issue, thinks scholars may be missing the larger benefit that Anonymous provides — widespread appreciation of the Bard's work.

It isn't threatening anybody," Fields commented. But if anything, it makes the work more important. It focuses attention on the most important body of work in the English language.

In an interview with The Atlantic , scriptwriter John Orloff was asked, "In crafting your characters and the narrative, how were you able to find the right balance between historical fact, fiction, and speculation?

The Shakespeare histories are not really histories. They're dramas. He compresses time. He adds characters that have been dead by the time the events are occurring.

He'll invent characters out of whole cloth, like Falstaff in the history plays. First and foremost it's a drama, and just like Shakespeare we're creating drama.

Emmerich, when given examples of details that do not correspond to the facts, was reported as being more concerned with the mood of the film.

Emmerich also notes that Shakespeare was not concerned with historical accuracy, and argues that examining the inner truth of history was his objective.

Crace, in discussing the notion of Emmerich as a 'literary detective', comments that the director "has never knowingly let the facts get in the way of a good story.

The result is that "the very absence of surviving evidence proves the case. Tiffany Stern, professor of early modern drama at Oxford University , says that the film is fictional, and should be enjoyed as such.

Gordon McMullan, professor of English at King's College , says Shakespeare wrote the plays, and the idea he didn't is related to a conspiracy theory that coincides with the emergence of the detective genre.

For Orloff, criticisms by scholars that call the film fictional rather than factual are kneejerk reactions to the "academic subversion of normality".

In a pre-release interview, scriptwriter Orloff said that, with the exception of whether Shakespeare wrote the plays or not, "The movie is unbelievably historically accurate Obviously, in my movie, he didn't, so a lot of people will say that's not historically accurate and they are totally welcome to that opinion.

But, the world within the movie, that that story takes place in, is incredibly accurate, like the Essex Rebellion and the ages of the characters.

Orloff also described the attention given to creating a "real London", noting that the effects crew "took 30, pictures in England, of every Tudor building they could find, and then they scanned them all into the computer and built real London in According to Holger Syme, [62] Stephen Marche [63] and James Shapiro, [64] the film does contain a number of historical inaccuracies.

These include standard theatrical techniques such as time compression and the conflating of supporting characters and locations, as well as larger deviations from recorded history.

Essex was King James of Scotland's most avid supporter in England during the closing years of Elizabeth's reign. In fact William Cecil feared James, believing he bore a grudge against him for his role in the death of James' mother, Mary Queen of Scots.

The film redates some plays and poems to fit the story of the Essex Rebellion. This event never occurred. It was published in Later, Macbeth is shown being staged after Julius Caesar and before Richard III and Hamlet , though those plays are estimated by scholars to have been performed around and — respectively [65] whereas Macbeth , often called "the Scottish play" because of its Scottish setting and plot, is generally believed to have been written to commemorate the ascent of the Scottish King James to the English throne.

That did not happen until

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